Early infectious outcomes after addition of fluoroquinolone or aminoglycoside to posttrauma antibiotic prophylaxis in combat-related open fracture injuries

The Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: We examined combat-related open extremity fracture infections as a function of whether posttrauma antimicrobial prophylaxis included expanded Gram-negative (EGN) coverage. METHODS: Military personnel with open extremity fractures sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan (2009-2014) who transferred to participating hospitals in the United States were assessed. The analysis was restricted to patients with a U.S. hospitalization period of ≥7 days. Prophylaxis was classified as narrow (e.g., IV cefazolin, clindamycin, and/or amoxicillin-clavulanate) or EGN, if the prophylactic regimen included fluoroquinolones and/or aminoglycosides. RESULTS: The study population included 1,044 patients, of which 585 (56%) and 459 (44%) received narrow and EGN coverage, respectively (p < 0.001). Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) were more common among patients who received narrow prophylaxis compared to EGN coverage (28% vs. 22%; p = 0.029), whereas osteomyelitis rates were comparable between regimens (8%). Similar findings were noted when endpoints were measured at 2 and 4 weeks postinjury. There was no significant difference related to length of hospitalization between narrow and EGN regimens (median: 34 and 32 days, respectively) or operating room visits (median: 5 and 4). A higher proportion of EGN coverage patients had Gram-negative organisms isolated that were not susceptible to fluoroquinolones and/or aminoglycosides (49% vs. 40%; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional model, narrow prophylaxis was independently associated with an increased risk of extremity SSTIs (hazard ratio: 1.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.83). DISCUSSION: Despite seeing a small benefit with EGN coverage related to a reduction of SSTIs, it does not decrease the risk of osteomyelitis, and there seems to be a cost of increased antibiotic resistance associated with use. Overall, our findings support the current post-combat trauma antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines, which recommend the use of cefazolin or clindamycin with open fractures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)854-861
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume83
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2017

Keywords

  • Clinical practice guidelines
  • antimicrobial prophylaxis
  • combat-related infections
  • extremity infections
  • open fractures

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