Emerging paradigm: Toll-like receptor 4 - Sentinel for the detection of tissue damage

Kevin P. Mollen, Rahul J. Anand, Allan Tsung, Jose M. Prince, Ryan M. Levy, Timothy R. Billiar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

271 Scopus citations


The systemic inflammatory response syndrome initiated by infection shares many features in common with the trauma-induced systemic response. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) stand at the interface of innate immune activation in the settings of both infection and sterile injury by responding to a variety of microbial and endogenous ligands alike. Recently, a body of literature has evolved describing a key role for TLRs in acute injury using rodent models of hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and reperfusion, tissue trauma and wound repair, and various toxic exposures. This review will detail the observations implicating a TLR family member, TLR4, as a key component of the initial injury response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)430-437
Number of pages8
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2006


  • Acute injury
  • Danger signals
  • Hemorrhagic shock (HS)
  • HMGB1
  • Innate immunity
  • Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)
  • Toxic exposure
  • Trauma


Dive into the research topics of 'Emerging paradigm: Toll-like receptor 4 - Sentinel for the detection of tissue damage'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this