Establishing a core outcome set for blunt cerebrovascular injury: an EAST modified Delphi method consensus study

Markus Ziesmann*, Saskya Byerly, Daniel Dante Yeh, Melissa Boltz, Rondi Gelbard, Elliott R. Haut, Jason W. Smith, Deborah M. Stein, Ben L. Zarzaur, Denis D. Bensard, Walter L. Biffl, April Boyd, Tor Brommeland, Clay Cothren Burlew, Timothy Fabian, Margaret Lauerman, Stefan Leichtle, Ernest E. Moore, Shelly Timmons, Kelly VogtJeffry Nahmias

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives Our understanding of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has changed significantly in recent decades, resulting in a heterogeneous description of diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in the literature which is not suitable for data pooling. Therefore, we endeavored to develop a core outcome set (COS) to help guide future BCVI research and overcome the challenge of heterogeneous outcomes reporting. Methods After a review of landmark BCVI publications, content experts were invited to participate in a modified Delphi study. For round 1, participants submitted a list of proposed core outcomes. In subsequent rounds, panelists used a 9-point Likert scale to score the proposed outcomes for importance. Core outcomes consensus was defined as >70% of scores receiving 7 to 9 and <15% of scores receiving 1 to 3. Feedback and aggregate data were shared between rounds, and four rounds of deliberation were performed to re-evaluate the variables not achieving predefined consensus criteria. Results From an initial panel of 15 experts, 12 (80%) completed all rounds. A total of 22 items were considered, with 9 items achieving consensus for inclusion as core outcomes: incidence of postadmission symptom onset, overall stroke incidence, stroke incidence stratified by type and by treatment category, stroke incidence prior to treatment initiation, time to stroke, overall mortality, bleeding complications, and injury progression on radiographic follow-up. The panel further identified four non-outcome items of high importance for reporting: time to BCVI diagnosis, use of standardized screening tool, duration of treatment, and type of therapy used. Conclusion Through a well-accepted iterative survey consensus process, content experts have defined a COS to guide future research on BCVI. This COS will be a valuable tool for researchers seeking to perform new BCVI research and will allow future projects to generate data suitable for pooled statistical analysis with enhanced statistical power. Level of evidence Level IV.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere001017
JournalTrauma Surgery and Acute Care Open
Issue number1
StatePublished - 15 Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic
  • Multiple Trauma
  • Vascular System Injuries
  • stroke


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