BACKGROUND Hemostatic dressings are used extensively in both military and civilian trauma to control lethal noncompressible hemorrhage. The ideal topical hemostatic agent would provide reliable hemostasis in patients with profound acidosis, coagulopathy, and shock. This study aimed to compare next-generation hemostatic agents against the current military standard in a translational swine model of vascular injury and coagulopathy. METHODS Female Yorkshire swine were randomized to eight groups (total n = 63; control n = 14, per group n = 7) of hemostatic agents and included: QuikClot Combat Gauze (Teleflex, Morrisville, NC), which served as the control; BloodSTOP IX (LifeScience Plus, Mountain View, CA); Celox Rapid (Medtrade Product, Crewe, United Kingdom); ChitoSAM 100 (Sam Medical, Tualatin, OR); EVARREST Fibrin Sealant Patch (Ethicon, Raritan, NJ); TAC Wrapping Gauze (H&H Medical, Williamsburg, VA); ChitoGauze XR Pro (Tricol Biomedical, Portland, OR); and X-Stat 30 (RevMedX, Wilsonville, OR). Hemodilution via exchange transfusion of 6% hetastarch was performed to induce acidosis and coagulopathy. An arteriotomy was created, allowing 30 seconds of free bleeding followed by application of the hemostatic agent and compression via an external compression device. A total of three applications were allowed for continued/recurrent bleeding. All blood loss was collected, and hemostatic agents were weighed to calculate blood volume loss. Following a 180-minute observation period, angiography was completed to evaluate for technical complication and distal perfusion of the limb. Finally, the limb was ranged five times to assess for rebleeding and clot stability. RESULTS All swine were confirmed coagulopathic with rotational thromboelastography and acidotic (pH 7.2 ± 0.02). BloodSTOP IX allowed a significant increase in blood loss and number of applications required to obtain hemostasis compared with all other groups. BloodSTOP IX demonstrated a decreased survival rate (29%, p = 0.02). All mortalities were directly attributed to exsanguination as a result of device failure. In surviving animals, there was no difference in extravasation. BloodSTOP IX had an increased rebleeding rate after ranging compared with QuikClot Combat Gauze (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION Most novel hemostatic agents demonstrated comparable efficacy compared with the currently military standard hemostatic dressing, CG.
- vascular injury