What is known and Objective: Despite recommendations to avoid fluoroquinolones (FQs) as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated cystitis, recent data suggest that FQs remain widely prescribed. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the appropriateness of empiric FQ use compared to nitrofurantoin for uncomplicated cystitis and to determine whether there are any trends or predictors of empiric FQ versus nitrofurantoin use for uncomplicated cystitis. Methods: This retrospective study included women ages 19-64 years who were seen at five family medicine clinics and were prescribed targeted antibiotics (nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) for uncomplicated cystitis. Charts were reviewed to collect data, including symptoms, comorbidities, allergies, creatinine clearance, recent antibiotic use and urine culture data. Appropriateness of empiric selection was determined based on national guidelines and local susceptibility data. Results and discussion: A total of 677 patient encounters were screened for inclusion. Of those, 567 met the inclusion criteria: 395 nitrofurantoin and 172 FQs. Treatment was considered appropriate in 86.8% and 10.5% of cases that were prescribed nitrofurantoin and FQs, respectively (P <.01). There were four independent predictors of FQ use identified by multivariate logistical regression: clinic at which the patient was treated, age, nitrofurantoin use within 90 days prior to encounter and previous urine culture within one year with an organism non-susceptible to nitrofurantoin. What is new and conclusion: Despite recommendations against FQs for uncomplicated cystitis, they continue to be widely prescribed, and their use for this indication is often inappropriate. This highlights the need for additional interventions and education to improve use and preserve the utility of FQs.
- outpatient antimicrobial stewardship
- outpatient treatment
- urinary tract infections