Factors Associated with Discharge to Skilled Nursing Facility Following Gunshot Wounds

Anthony Eze, Harold Leraas, Oluebubechukwu Eze, Chinecherem Chime, Braylee Grisel, Lauren Moore, Marcelo Cerullo, Doreen Chang, Suresh Agarwal, Krista L. Haines*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Firearm injury is a public health crisis. Most victims are minorities in underserved neighborhoods. Measuring firearm injury by mortality underestimates its impact, as most victims survive to discharge. This study was done to determine if race and insurance status are associated with discharge disposition for gunshot wound (GSW)–related trauma. Methods: Using the 2019 Trauma Quality Improvement Program database, we identified GSW patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) = 1-3. Exclusion criteria included patients who died in hospital and routine home discharge. We compared discharge patterns of patients based on demographics (age, gender, race, ethnicity, payor, AIS, hospital designation, and length of stay [LOS]) and injury severity. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors associated with discharge disposition. Results: Our sample included 2437 patients with GSWs. On univariable analysis, Black patients were more likely to discharge to home with home health (64.1% Black versus 34.7% White; P < 0.001). White patients were more likely to discharge to skilled nursing facility (SNF) (51.4% White versus 44.6% Black; P < 0.001). Controlling for age, race, Latin ethnicity, primary payor, LOS, AIS severity, and injury severity score factors independently associated with discharge to SNF included age (0.0462, P < 0.001), Medicaid (1.136, P < 0.0003), Medicare (1.452, P < 0.001), and LOS (0.03745, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Postacute care following traumatic injuries is essential to recovery. Black GSW victims are more likely to be discharged to home health than White patients, who are more likely to be discharged to SNF. Targeted programs to reduce barriers to appropriate aftercare are necessary to eliminate this bias and improve the care of underserved populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Gunshot wound
  • Home health services
  • Postdischarge care
  • Skilled nursing facility (s)


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