Factors Associated With the Differences Between Self-Report Smoking and Urinary Cotinine Criteria

Gyeong Min Lee, Jang Ho Yoon, Woo Ri Lee, Li Hyun Kim, Ki Bong Yoo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


During self-reporting, respondents underreport their smoking status for various reasons. We aimed to evaluate the difference between smoking status self-reporting and urinary cotinine tests in Korea respondents. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the differences between self-reporting and urinary cotinine criteria. The dependent variable was the underreporting of smoking status; independent variables were sociodemographic, health status, and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Total underreporting was 3.6% when Cot ≥164 and 4.0% when Cot-variable (classified) criteria underreported. Positive associations were found between smoking and age, education, drinking, and SHS. Underreporting in the nonsmoker group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.336; confidence interval [CI] = 1.717-3.179) was significantly associated with SHS, but this difference was nonsignificant in the ex-smoker group (OR = 1.184; CI = 0.879-1.638). Underreporting was 3.6% to 4.0%, and C-statistics was about 0.7, indicating that outcomes could be classified. SHS in nonsmokers was positively associated with underreporting; however, only the nonsmoker group had positive associations, demonstrating unintentional underreporting due to SHS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)357-368
Number of pages12
JournalAsia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • logistic regression
  • secondhand smoke
  • self-report
  • underreporting
  • urinary cotinine


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