Fasciotomy is a common and often limb-saving procedure that is performed as part of both elective and emergent operative procedures in the extremities. This review describes the history, defines the disease, and describes the options for diagnosing a compartment syndrome. The technical aspects of both decompressing affected compartments and covering the fasciotomy wound are described as well. Finally, the sparse data on long-term sequelae are reviewed. With a working knowledge of the techniques of diagnosis and management in this article, limbs of many critically ill patients may be salvaged.