Endovascular resuscitation is an emerging area in the resuscitation of both severe traumatic hemorrhage and nontraumatic cardiac arrest. Vascular access is the critical first procedural step that must be accomplished to initiate endovascular resuscitation. The endovascular interventions presently available and emerging are routinely or potentially performed via the femoral vessels. This may require either femoral arterial access alone or access to both the femoral artery and vein. The time-critical nature of resuscitation necessitates that medical specialists performing endovascular resuscitation be well-trained in vascular access techniques. Keen knowledge of femoral vascular anatomy and skill with vascular access techniques are required to meet the needs of critically ill patients for whom endovascular resuscitation can prove lifesaving. This review article addresses the critical importance of femoral vascular access in endovascular resuscitation, focusing on the pertinent femoral vascular anatomy and technical aspects of ultrasound-guided percutaneous vascular access and femoral vessel cutdown that may prove helpful for successful endovascular resuscitation.
- Endovascular resuscitation
- cardiac arrest
- femoral vascular access
- femoral vessel cutdown
- ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle insertion