Food and Water Insecurity in Sexual and Gender Minority Groups Living with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria

Matthew M. Hamill*, Fengming Hu, Sylvia Adebajo, Afoke Kokogho, Abdulwasiu B. Tiamiyu, Zahra F. Parker, Manhattan E. Charurat, Julie A. Ake, Stefan D. Baral, Rebecca G. Nowak, Trevor A. Crowell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background:Food and water insecurity are associated with poor health outcomes that may be exacerbated by social marginalization and barriers to health care experienced by sexual and gender minorities (SGM) in resource-limited settings. We explored factors associated with food and water insecurity in SGM with HIV.Setting:A longitudinal study of 357 men who have sex with men, transgender women, and other gender-identifying people in Lagos, Nigeria.Methods:Laboratory testing, interviews, food and water assessments, and anthropometry were performed quarterly. Robust Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to evaluate factors potentially associated with food and water insecurity.Results:From 2014 to 2018, 357 SGM with HIV completed either the food or water assessments. At baseline, participants identified as cisgender men who have sex with men 265 (74.2%), transgender women 63 (17.7%), or as nonbinary/other gender 29 (8.1%). Food insecurity and water insecurity were reported by 63/344(18.3%) and 113/357(31.7%), respectively, at any visit. Food and water insecurity each decreased with ongoing study participation. Food insecurity was associated with nonpartnered relationship status, CD4 count <500 cells/mm3, and lack of access to piped water. Water insecurity was associated with age 25 years or older, living with a man, transactional sex, and food insecurity.Conclusions:Food and water insecurity were common among SGM in Nigeria and decreased with continued study participation, suggesting amenability to intervention when SGM are successfully engaged in care. Targeted interventions to support food and water security may improve HIV-related outcomes, such as CD4 count.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-180
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV
  • Nigeria
  • food insecurity
  • men who have sex with men
  • sub-Saharan Africa
  • transgender women
  • water insecurity


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