Further Results on Predictor-Based Control of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

Naji Alibeji, Nicholas Kirsch, Shawn Farrokhi, Nitin Sharma*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Electromechanical delay (EMD) and uncertain nonlinear muscle dynamics can cause destabilizing effects and performance loss during closed-loop control of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Linear control methods for NMES often perform poorly due to these technical challenges. A new predictor-based closed-loop controller called proportional integral derivative controller with delay compensation (PID-DC) is presented in this paper. The PID-DC controller was designed to compensate for EMDs during NMES. Further, the robust controller can be implemented despite uncertainties or in the absence of model knowledge of the nonlinear musculoskeletal dynamics. Lyapunov stability analysis was used to synthesize the new controller. The effectiveness of the new controller was validated and compared with two recently developed nonlinear NMES controllers, through a series of closed-loop control experiments on four able-bodied human subjects. Experimental results depict statistically significant improved performance with PID-DC. The new controller is shown to be robust to variations in an estimated EMD value.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7078869
Pages (from-to)1095-1105
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Delays
  • Knee
  • Muscles
  • Robustness
  • Stability analysis
  • Uncertainty


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