A comprehensive vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) would block HIV-1 acquisition as well as durably control viral replication in breakthrough infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that Env is required for a vaccine to protect against acquisition of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vaccinated rhesus monkeys, but the antigen requirements for virologic control remain unclear. Here, we investigate whether CD8+ T lymphocytes from vaccinated rhesus monkeys mediate viral inhibition in vitro and whether these responses predict virologic control following SIV challenge. We observed that CD8+ lymphocytes from 23 vaccinated rhesus monkeys inhibited replication of SIV in vitro. Moreover, the magnitude of inhibition prior to challenge was inversely correlated with set point SIV plasma viral loads after challenge. In addition, CD8 cell-mediated viral inhibition in vaccinated rhesus monkeys correlated significantly with Gag-specific, but not Pol- or Env-specific, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte responses. These findings demonstrate that in vitro viral inhibition following vaccination largely reflects Gag-specific cellular immune responses and correlates with in vivo virologic control following infection. These data suggest the importance of including Gag in an HIV-1 vaccine in which virologic control is desired.