Gender and procreation among patients with schizophrenia

T. Bhatia, M. A. Franzos, J. A. Wood, V. L. Nimgaonkar*, S. N. Deshpande

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Objective: Reduced procreation among men with schizophrenia has been reported consistently when compared with female patients, but the cause is unknown. Reports on Caucasian individuals predominate in the published literature. Therefore, analyses were conducted concurrently among independent Indian and US samples in the present study. Method: Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were ascertained and interviewed at New Delhi and in the northeastern United States using identical procedures (n=224 and 144, respectively). Selected indices of fertility and fecundity were compared among men and women at each site. Results: In the smaller US sample, male cases were significantly more likely to be single and childless compared with female cases. They also had fewer children. In contrast, there were no significant gender differences in the larger Indian sample with regard to the reproductive indices. Multivariate analyses revealed that the indices of reproduction were associated with different variables in the US and Indian samples. Fertility (the presence or absence of offspring) was associated with gender and age in the US sample while in the Indian sample conjugal status and age were significant predictors. Fecundity (the number of offspring) was associated with gender, conjugal status and educational status in the US sample while in the Indian sample conjugal status and educational status were both significant. Conclusions: The reproductive deficit observed among US males was not observed among the Indian men. Conjugal status was a significant covariate for reproduction in both samples. The reproductive deficit may be due to difficulties in establishing long-term conjugal relationships among the US men. The differences may also reflect underlying cultural variations related to marital practices in these two countries. Our analyses suggest that the male reproductive deficit in schizophrenia is variable and may be overcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-394
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Culture
  • Fecundity
  • Fertility
  • India
  • Schizophrenia


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