Allelic variants for the HIV-1 co-receptors chemokine receptor 5 (CCRS) and CCR2, as well as the ligand for the co-receptor CXCR4, stromal-derived factor (SDF-1), have been associated with a delay in disease progression. We began this study to test whether polymorphisms in the CCR5 regulatory regions influence the course of HIV-1 disease, as well as to examine the role of the previously identified allelic variants in 1,090 HIV-1 infected individuals. Here we describe the evolutionary relationships between the phenotypically important CCR5 alleles, define precisely the CCR5 regulatory sequences that are linked to the CCRS-Δ32 and CCR2-641 polymorphisms, and identify genotypes associated with altered rates of HIV-1 disease progression. The disease-retarding effects of the CCR2-641 allele were found in African Americans but not in Caucasians, and the SDF1-3'A/3'A genotype was associated with an accelerated progression to death. In contrast, the CCR5-Δ32 allele and a CCR5 promoter mutation with which it is tightly linked were associated with limited disease-retarding effects. Collectively, these findings draw attention to a complex array of genetic determinants in the HIV-host interplay.