Genetic models for lineage tracing in musculoskeletal development, injury, and healing

Shawn Loder, Nicole Patel, Sophie Morgani, Margaux Sambon, Philipp Leucht, Benjamin Levi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Musculoskeletal development and later post-natal homeostasis are highly dynamic processes, marked by rapid structural and functional changes across very short periods of time. Adult anatomy and physiology are derived from pre-existing cellular and biochemical states. Consequently, these early developmental states guide and predict the future of the system as a whole. Tools have been developed to mark, trace, and follow specific cells and their progeny either from one developmental state to the next or between circumstances of health and disease. There are now many such technologies alongside a library of molecular markers which may be utilized in conjunction to allow for precise development of unique cell ‘lineages’. In this review, we first describe the development of the musculoskeletal system beginning as an embryonic germ layer and at each of the key developmental stages that follow. We then discuss these structures in the context of adult tissues during homeostasis, injury, and repair. Special focus is given in each of these sections to the key genes involved which may serve as markers of lineage or later in post-natal tissues. We then finish with a technical assessment of lineage tracing and the techniques and technologies currently used to mark cells, tissues, and structures within the musculoskeletal system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116777
StatePublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Bone
  • Developmental biology
  • Fate mapping
  • Lineage tracing
  • Model
  • Skeletomuscular system


Dive into the research topics of 'Genetic models for lineage tracing in musculoskeletal development, injury, and healing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this