Improper compartmentalization of the inflammatory response leads to systemic inflammation in sepsis. Hemoadsorption (HA) is an emerging approach to modulate sepsis-induced inflammation. We sought to define the effects of HA on inflammatory compartmentalization in Escherichia coli-induced fibrin peritonitis in rats. Hypothesis: HA both reprograms and recompartmentalizes inflammation in sepsis. Sprague Dawley male rats were subjected to E. coli peritonitis and, after 24 h, were randomized to HA or sham treatment (sepsis alone). Venous blood samples collected at 0, 1, 3 and 6 h (that is, 24-30 h of total experimental sepsis), and peritoneal samples collected at 0 and 6 h, were assayed for 14 cytokines along with NO2-/NO3-. Bacterial counts were assessed in the peritoneal fluid at 0 and 6 h. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL-1, and CCL2 were significantly reduced in HA versus sham. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that inflammation in sham was driven by IL-6 and TNF-α, whereas HA-associated inflammation was driven primarily by TNF-α, CXCL-1, IL-10 and CCL2. Whereas peritoneal bacterial counts, plasma aspartate transaminase levels and peritoneal IL-5, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ and NO2-/NO3- were significantly lower, both CXCL-1 and CCL2 as well as the peritoneal-to-plasma ratios of TNF-α, CXCL-1 and CCL2 were significantly higher in HA versus sham, suggesting that HA-induced inflammatory recompartmentalization leads to the different inflammatory drivers discerned in part by PCA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of combined in vivo/in silico methods and suggests that HA exerts differential effects on mediator gradients between local and systemic compartments that ultimately benefit the host.