Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a diverse pathologic process, defined as the formation of extraskeletal bone in muscle and soft tissues. HO can be conceptualized as a tissue repair process gone awry and is a common complication of trauma and surgery. This comprehensive review seeks to synthesize the clinical, pathoetiologic, and basic biologic features of HO, including nongenetic and genetic forms. First, the clinical features, radiographic appearance, histopathologic diagnosis, and current methods of treatment are discussed. Next, current concepts regarding the mechanistic bases for HO are discussed, including the putative cell types responsible for HO formation, the inflammatory milieu and other prerequisite “niche” factors for HO initiation and propagation, and currently available animal models for the study of HO of this common and potentially devastating condition.
- ECTOPIC BONE
- FIBRODYSPLASIA OSSIFICANS PROGRESSIVA
- HETEROTOPIC BONE
- MYOSITIS OSSIFICANS