Heterotopic Ossification Following Upper Extremity Injury

Shailesh Agarwal, Shawn Loder, Benjamin Levi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Heterotopic ossification (HO) presents a substantial barrier to rehabilitation for patients with severe burns or trauma. Although surgical excision is a mainstay of management for this condition, this is unable to address the chronic sequelae of HO, including chronic pain, joint contractures, nerve dysfunction, and open wounds. Current therapeutic modalities are aimed at excision and the prevention of recurrence using nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or radiation therapy. Research is now focused on identifying alternative strategies to prevent the initial occurrence of HO through NSAIDs and novel inhibitors of the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-373
Number of pages11
JournalHand Clinics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 May 2017


  • Burn injury
  • Elbow
  • Heterotopic ossification
  • Upper extremity


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