High frequency of potential phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor drug interactions in males with HIV infection and erectile dysfunction

Jason M. Cota, Taylor M. Benavides, John D. Fields, Nathan Jansen, Anuradha Ganesan, Rhonda E. Colombo, Jason M. Blaylock, Ryan C. Maves, Brian K. Agan, Jason F. Okulicz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives We sought to determine the prevalence of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE-5) mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in males with HIV infection receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify factors associated with PDE-5-mediated DDIs. Methods: Male US Military HIV Natural History Study participants diagnosed with erectile dysfunction (ED) and having a PDE-5 inhibitor and potentially-interacting ART co-dispensed within 30 days were included. DDIs were defined according to criteria found in published guidelines and drug information resources. The primary outcome of interest was overall PDE-5 inhibitor- mediated DDI prevalence and episode duration. A secondary logistic regression analysis was performed on those with and without DDIs to identify factors associated with initial DDI episode. Results: A total of 235 male participants with ED met inclusion criteria. The majority were White (50.6%) or African American (40.4%). Median age at medication co-dispensing (45 years), duration of HIV infection (14 years), and duration of ED (1 year) did not differ between the two groups (p>0.05 for all). PDE-5 inhibitors included sildenafil (n = 124), vardenafil (n = 99), and tadalafil (n = 14). ART regimens included RTV-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) atazanavir (n = 83) or darunavir (n = 34), and COBI-boosted elvitegravir (n = 43). Potential DDIs occurred in 181 (77.0%) participants, of whom 122 (67.4%) had multiple DDI episodes. The median DDI duration was 8 (IQR 1-12) months. In multivariate analyses, non-statistically significant higher odds of DDIs were observed with RTV-boosted PIs or PI-based ART (OR 2.13, 95% CI 0.85-5.37) and in those with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (OR 1.74, 95% CI 0.83-3.64). Conclusions: PDE-5-mediated DDIs were observed in the majority of males with HIV infection on RTV- or COBI-boosted ART in our cohort. This study highlights the importance of assessing for DDIs among individuals on ART, especially those on boosted regimens.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0250607
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number5 May
StatePublished - May 2021


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