Objective. To study histopathology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in HIV-infected African Americans in the United States. Methods. A retrospective review of 102 autopsy cases done by the Department of Pathology at Howard University Hospital from 1980 through 2007 was conducted. The histopathological findings of the thyroid and parathyroid glands were reviewed, both macroscopically and microscopically. A control group of autopsy patients with chronic non-HIV diseases was examined. Results. There were 71 males (70%) and 31 females (30%) with an average age of 38 years (range: 20-71 y). Thirteen patients with abnormal thyroid findings were identified. Interstitial fibrosis was the most common histological finding (4.9%), followed by thyroid hyperplasia (1.9%). Infectious disease affecting the thyroid gland was limited to 2.9% and consisted of mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and cytomegalovirus. Kaposi sarcoma of the thyroid gland was present in only one case (0.9%). Parathyroid hyperplasia was the most common histological change noted in the parathyroid glands. Comparing the histological findings of cases and controls, we found a similar involvement of the thyroid, with a greater prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia in HIV patients. Conclusion. Thyroid and parathyroid abnormalities are uncommon findings in the HIV-infected African American population.