Introduction: Rapid aeromedical evacuation (AE) is standard of care in current conflicts. However, not much is known about possible effects of hypobaric conditions. We investigated possible effects of hypobaria on organ damage in a swine model of acute lung injury. Methods: Lung injury was induced in anesthetized swine via intravenous oleic acid infusion. After a stabilization phase, animals were subjected to a 4 hour simulated AE at 8000 feet (HYPO). Control animals were kept at normobaria. After euthanasia and necropsy, organ damage was assessed by combined scores for hemorrhage, inflammation, edema, necrosis, and microatelectasis. Results: Hemodynamic, neurological, or hematologic measurements were similar prior to transport. Hemodynamic instability became apparent during the last 2 hours of transport in the HYPO group. Histological injury scores in the HYPO group were higher for all organs (lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands) except the brain, with the largest difference in the lungs (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Swine with mild acute lung injury subjected to a 4 hour simulated AE showed more injury to most organs and, in particular, to the lungs compared with ground transport. This may exacerbate otherwise subclinical pathology and, eventually, manifest as abnormalities in gas exchange or possibly end-organ function.