HIV-1 drug resistance and genetic diversity in a cohort of people with HIV-1 in Nigeria

Paul E. Oluniyi, Fehintola V. Ajogbasile, Shuntai Zhou, Iyanuoluwa Fred-Akintunwa, Christina S. Polyak, Julie A. Ake, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Michael Iroezindu, Morgane Rolland, Christian T. Happi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective:This study was designed to provide information on the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and drug resistance mutations in Nigeria, as there is limited understanding of variants circulating in the country.Methods:We used an advanced next-generation sequencing platform, Primer ID, to: Investigate the presence of high and low abundance drug resistance mutations; characterize preexisting Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor (INSTI) mutations in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced but dolutegravir-naive individuals; detect recent HIV-1 infections and characterize subtype diversity from a cohort of people with HIV-1 (PWH).Results:HIV-1 subtype analysis revealed the predominance of CRF02_AG and subtype G in our study population. At detection sensitivity of 30% abundance, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were identified in 3% of samples. At a sensitivity level of 10%, DRMs were identified in 27.3% of samples. We did not detect any major INSTI mutation associated with dolutegravir-resistance. Only one recent infection was detected in our study population.Conclusion:Our study suggests that dolutegravir-containing antiretroviral regimens will be effective in Nigeria. Our study also further emphasizes the high genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Nigeria and that CRF02_AG and subtype G are the dominant circulating forms of HIV-1 in Nigeria. These two circulating forms of the virus are largely driving the epidemic in the country.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-146
Number of pages10
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Dolutegravir
  • Drug resistance
  • HIV-1
  • Primer ID
  • Subtype


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