HIV prevalence and awareness among adults presenting for enrolment into a study of people at risk for HIV in Kisumu County, Western Kenya

behalf of the RV393 Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction Despite declines in new HIV diagnoses both globally and in Kenya, parts of Western Kenya still report high HIV prevalence and incidence. We evaluated HIV prevalence to inform the development of policies for strategic and targeted HIV prevention interventions. Methods Adult participants aged 18–35 years were recruited in Kisumu County and screened for HIV for a prospective HIV incidence cohort. Questionnaires assessed HIV-associated risk behaviors. Participants who tested positive for HIV were disaggregated into groups based on prior knowledge of their HIV status: previously-diagnosed and newly-diagnosed. In separate analyses by prior knowledge, robust Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors potentially associated with a positive HIV test in each group, as compared to participants without HIV. Results Of 1059 participants tested for HIV, 196 (18.5%) had a positive HIV test. Among PLWH, 78 (39.8%) were newly diagnosed with HIV at screening. After adjusting for other variables, previously-diagnosed HIV was more common among females than males (PR 2.70, 95%CI 1.69–4.28), but there was no observed sex difference in newly-diagnosed HIV prevalence (PR 1.05, 95%CI 0.65–1.69). Previously-diagnosed HIV was also more common among people reporting consistent use of condoms with primary sexual partners as compared to inconsistent condom use (PR 3.19, 95%CI 2.09–4.86), but newly-diagnosed HIV was not associated with such a difference between consistent and inconsistent condom use (PR 0.73, 95%CI 0.25–2.10). Conclusion Prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV was high, at approximately 8% of participants, and not statistically different between genders, highlighting the need for improved HIV case finding regardless of sex. The higher prevalence of previously-diagnosed HIV in female participants may reflect higher rates of HIV testing through more encounters with the healthcare system. Higher prevalence of consistent condom use amongst those previously-diagnosed suggests behavioral change to reduce HIV transmission, a potential benefit of policies to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0294860
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number1 January
StatePublished - 20 Jan 2024
Externally publishedYes


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