Host responses to concurrent combined injuries in non-human primates

Matthew J. Bradley*, Diego A. Vicente, Benjamin A. Bograd, Erin M. Sanders, Crystal L. Leonhardt, Eric A. Elster, Thomas A. Davis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Multi-organ failure (MOF) following trauma remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality related to a poorly understood abnormal inflammatory response. We characterized the inflammatory response in a non-human primate soft tissue injury and closed abdomen hemorrhage and sepsis model developed to assess realistic injury patterns and induce MOF. Methods: Adult male Mauritan Cynomolgus Macaques underwent laparoscopy to create a cecal perforation and non-anatomic liver resection along with a full-thickness flank soft tissue injury. Treatment consisted of a pre-hospital phase followed by a hospital phase after 120 minutes. Blood counts, chemistries, and cytokines/chemokines were measured throughout the study. Lung tissue inflammation/apoptosis was confirmed by mRNA quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), H&E, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TUNEL staining was performed comparing age-matched uninjured controls to experimental animals. Results: Twenty-one animals underwent the protocol. Mean percent hepatectomy was 64.4 ± 5.6; percent blood loss was 69.0 ± 12.1. Clinical evidence of end-organ damage was reflected by a significant elevation in creatinine (1.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4, p=0.026). Significant increases in systemic levels of IL-10, IL-1ra, IL-6, G-CSF, and MCP-1 occurred (11-2986-fold) by 240 minutes. Excessive pulmonary inflammation was evidenced by alveolar edema, congestion, and wall thickening (H&E staining). Concordantly, amplified accumulation of MPO leukocytes and significant pulmonary inflammation and pneumocyte apoptosis (TUNEL) was confirmed using qRT-PCR. Conclusion: We created a clinically relevant large animal multi-trauma model using laparoscopy that resulted in a significant systemic inflammatory response and MOF. With this model, we anticipate studying systemic inflammation and testing innovative therapeutic options.

Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalJournal of Inflammation (United Kingdom)
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2 Nov 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Immune response
  • Military
  • Non-human primate
  • Trauma


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