Human helper T cell activation and differentiation is suppressed by porcine small intestinal submucosa

Ellen M. Palmer, Beth A. Beilfuss, Taro Nagai, Roshanak T. Semnani, Steve F. Badylak, Gijs A. Van Seventer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


A cell-free biomaterial derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has been used successfully in many models as a xenogeneic scaffolding material without generating immune-mediated inflammatory reactions. We investigated whether this absence of inflammation is due to the presence of porcine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) activity found in SIS that may have immunosuppressive properties on helper T (Th) cell subset activation and differentiation. We used in vitro models for the generation of human Th1 and Th2 cells to investigate the influence of SIS. We found that SIS partially suppressed Thl cell expansion and secretion of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in a TGF-β-dependent manner, but Th1 cell expansion and IFN-γ secretion could be fully overcome by addition of recombinant IL-12. The suppression by SIS of Th cell activation also involved the induction of Th cell apoptosis. In addition, SIS completely abolished the generation of Th2 cells in vitro, but this effect of SIS was not reversed by neutralizing TGF-β antibodies. Our results indicate the presence in SIS of factors that can suppress Th cell activation through both the inhibition of IL-12 secretion and the induction of Th cell apoptosis. We established further that these factors include TGF-β and at least one other factor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)893-900
Number of pages8
JournalTissue Engineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


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