Hyphema in Open-Globe Versus Closed-Globe Injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom: 2001-2011

Natalie R. Miller*, Grant A. Justin, Won I. Kim, Daniel I. Brooks, Denise S. Ryan, Eric D. Weichel, Marcus H. Colyer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: The goal of this study is to update the incidence of hyphema in Operation Iraqi (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). We wanted to assess associated ocular injuries and final visual acuity (VA) in open-globe versus closed-globe injuries with a hyphema. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the Walter Reed Ocular Trauma Database (WRTOD) to identify U.S. Service members and DoD civilians with hyphema who were evacuated to Walter Reed Army Medical Center between 2001 and 2011. Primary outcome measures were the final VA and differences in concomitant ocular injuries in open-globe hyphema and closed-globe hyphema. Results: 168 of 890 eyes (18.9%) in the WROTD had a hyphema. Closed-globe injuries were noted in 64 (38.1%) eyes and open-globe injuries in 104 (61.9%) eyes. A final VA of less than 20/200 was noted in 88 eyes (51.8%). Eyes with hyphema were more likely to have traumatic cataract formation (odds ratio (OR) 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-9.2, P < 0.001), retinal detachment (OR 4.2, CI 2.8-6.4, P < 0.001), angle recession (OR 8.1, CI 2.9-24.3, P < 0.001), and final VA of less than 20/200 (OR 3.7, CI 2.6-5.4, P < 0.001). Traumatic cataract formation (OR 7.4, CI 2.9-18.7, P < 0.001), retinal detachment (OR 6.1, CI 2.1-17.5, P < 0.001), and a final VA less than 20/200 (OR 6.1, CI 2.4-15.4 P < 0.001) were statistically more likely to occur with an open-globe hyphema than with a closed-globe hyphema. Conclusions: Close follow-up in patients with hyphema is important due to the associated development of traumatic cataract and retinal detachment and poor final visual outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E768-E773
JournalMilitary Medicine
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - 8 Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes


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