IFNγ regulates NAD+ metabolism to promote the respiratory burst in human monocytes

Katelyn J. McCann, Stephen M. Christensen, Devon H. Colby, Peter J. McGuire, Ian A. Myles, Christa S. Zerbe, Clifton L. Dalgard, Gauthaman Sukumar, Warren J. Leonard, Beth A. McCormick, Steven M. Holland*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Interferon γ (IFNγ) is an essential and pleiotropic activator of human monocytes, but little is known about the changes in cellular metabolism required for IFNγ-induced activation. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which IFNγ reprograms monocyte metabolism to support its immunologic activities. We found that IFNγ increased oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in monocytes, indicative of reactive oxygen species generation by both mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Transcriptional profiling revealed that this oxidative phenotype was driven by IFNγ-induced reprogramming of NAD+ metabolism, which is dependent on nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-mediated NAD+ salvage to generate NADH and NADPH for oxidation by mitochondrial complex I and NADPH oxidase, respectively. Consistent with this pathway, monocytes from patients with gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 demonstrated higher-than-normal OCR, whereas chemical or genetic disruption of mitochondrial complex I (rotenone treatment or Leigh syndrome patient monocytes) or NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium treatment or chronic granulomatous disease [CGD] patient monocytes) reduced OCR. Interestingly, inhibition of NAMPT in healthy monocytes completely abrogated the IFNγ-induced oxygen consumption, comparable to levels observed in CGD monocytes. These data identify an IFNγ-induced, NAMPT-dependent, NAD+ salvage pathway that is critical for IFNγ activation of human monocytes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3821-3834
Number of pages14
JournalBlood Advances
Issue number12
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


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