Immune and behavioral correlates of protection against symptomatic post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection

Emilie Goguet*, Cara H. Olsen, William A. Meyer, Sara Ansari, John H. Powers, Tonia L. Conner, Si’Ana A. Coggins, Wei Wang, Richard Wang, Luca Illinik, Margaret Sanchez Edwards, Belinda M. Jackson-Thompson, Monique Hollis-Perry, Gregory Wang, Yolanda Alcorta, Mimi A. Wong, David Saunders, Roshila Mohammed, Bolatito Balogun, Priscilla KobiLakeesha Kosh, Kimberly Bishop-Lilly, Regina Z. Cer, Catherine E. Arnold, Logan J. Voegtly, Maren Fitzpatrick, Andrea E. Luquette, Francisco Malagon, Orlando Ortega, Edward Parmelee, Julian Davies, Alyssa R. Lindrose, Hannah Haines-Hull, Matthew S. Moser, Emily C. Samuels, Marana S. Rekedal, Elizabeth K. Graydon, Allison M.W. Malloy, David R Tribble, Timothy H. Burgess, Wesley Campbell, Sara Robinson, Christopher C. Broder, Robert J. O’Connell, Carol D. Weiss, Simon Pollett, Eric D Laing, Edward Mitre*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: We sought to determine pre-infection correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 post-vaccine inzfections (PVI) acquired during the first Omicron wave in the United States. Methods: Serum and saliva samples from 176 vaccinated adults were collected from October to December of 2021, immediately before the Omicron wave, and assessed for SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific IgG and IgA binding antibodies (bAb). Sera were also assessed for bAb using commercial assays, and for neutralization activity against several SARS-CoV-2 variants. PVI duration and severity, as well as risk and precautionary behaviors, were assessed by questionnaires. Results: Serum anti-Spike IgG levels assessed by research assay, neutralization titers against Omicron subvariants, and low home risk scores correlated with protection against PVIs after multivariable regression analysis. Commercial assays did not perform as well as research assay, likely due to their lower dynamic range. Discussion: In the 32 participants that developed PVI, anti-Spike IgG bAbs correlated with lower disease severity and shorter duration of illness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1287504
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume15
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • correlates of immunity
  • respiratory infection
  • vaccination

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