Impact of operational theater on combat and noncombat trauma-related infections

David R. Tribble, Ping Li, Tyler E. Warkentien, Bradley A. Lloyd, Elizabeth R. Schnaubelt, Anuradha Ganesan, William Bradley, Deepak Aggarwal, M. Leigh Carson, Amy C. Weintrob, Clinton K. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


The Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study began in June 2009 as combat operations were decreasing in Iraq and increasing in Afghanistan. Our analysis examines the rate of infections of wounded U.S. military personnel from operational theaters in Iraq and Afghanistan admitted to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center between June 2009 and December 2013 and transferred to a participating U.S. hospital. Infection risk factors were examined in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (expressed as odds ratios [OR]; 95% confidence intervals [CI]). The study population includes 524 wounded military personnel from Iraq and 4,766 from Afghanistan. The proportion of patients with at least one infection was 28% and 34% from the Iraq and Afghanistan theaters, respectively. The incidence density rate was 2.0 (per 100 person-days) for Iraq and 2.7 infections for Afghanistan. Independent risk factors included large-volume blood product transfusions (OR: 10.68; CI: 6.73-16.95), high Injury Severity Score (OR: 2.48; CI: 1.81-3.41), and improvised explosive device injury mechanism (OR: 1.84; CI: 1.35-2.49). Operational theater (OR: 1.32; CI: 0.87-1.99) was not a risk factor. The difference in infection rates between operational theaters is primarily a result of increased injury severity in Afghanistan from a higher proportion of blast-related trauma during the study period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1258-1268
Number of pages11
JournalMilitary Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2016


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