Introduction: Time is an essential element in outcomes of trauma patients. The relationship of time to treatment in management of noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) or resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) has not been previously described. We hypothesized that shorter times to intervention would reduce mortality. Methods: A review of the Aortic Occlusion for Resuscitation in Trauma and Acute Care Surgery registry from 2013 to 2022 was performed to identify patients who underwent emergency department aortic occlusion (AO). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the impact of time to treatment on mortality. Results: A total of 1,853 patients (1,245 [67%] RT, 608 [33%] REBOA) were included. Most patients were male (82%) with a median age of 34 years (interquartile range, 30). Median time from injury to admission and admission to successful AO were 31 versus 11 minutes, respectively. Patients who died had shorter median times from injury to successful AO (44 vs. 72 minutes, P < 0.001) and admission to successful AO (10 vs. 22 minutes, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that receiving RT was the strongest predictor of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-9.9; P < 0.001). Time from injury to admission and admission to successful AO were not significant. This finding was consistent in subgroup analysis of RT-only and REBOA-only populations. Conclusions: Despite expedited interventions, time to aortic occlusion did not significantly impact mortality. This may suggest that rapid in-hospital intervention was often insufficient to compensate for severe exsanguination and hypovolemia that had already occurred before emergency department presentation. Selective prehospital advanced resuscitative care closer to the point of injury with "scoop and control"efforts including hemostatic resuscitation warrants special consideration.
- Hemorrhagic shock
- aortic occlusion
- resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta
- resuscitative thoracotomy