Implantable cathodic voltage controlled electrical stimulator

K. Weeks, C. Clark, M. Tobias, E. McDermott, T. Duquin, M. Ehrensberger, A. H. Titus*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This work reports the first of its kind custom implantable cathodic voltage controlled electrical stimulator (iCVCES) for use with implanted orthopaedic devices. The iCVCES allows researchers to study DC cathodic voltage controlled electrical stimulation (CVCES) in vivo with no percutaneous leads. The iCVCES is a microcontroller-based potentiostat circuit with wireless (bluetooth) communication that controls the DC cathodic stimulation and monitors the environment around the implant. Comprising a single PCB with a coin cell battery, the device is able to hold a constant voltage as large as -1.8 V in a dynamic impedance environment. In vitro tests demonstrate functionality comparable to bench-top systems, and in vivo tests demonstrate operation in live rats, for up to 8 days, with the ability to provide constant stimulation with a maximum variation of 2 mV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1215-1217
Number of pages3
JournalElectronics Letters
Issue number23
StatePublished - 14 Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


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