Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis

Naveena B. Janakiram, Altaf Mohammed, Taylor Bryant, Stan Lightfoot, Peter D. Collin, Vernon E. Steele, Chinthalapally V. Rao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APCMin/+ mice. APCMin/+ mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APCMin/+ mice. In female APCMin/+ mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-337
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Prevention Research
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes

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