Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

Alina Burgi, Stephanie Brodine, Scott Wegner, Mark Milazzo, Mark R. Wallace, Katherine Spooner, David L. Blazes, Brian K. Agan, Adam Armstrong, Susan Fraser, Nancy F. Crum*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

188 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to determine the rates and predictors of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) among a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. METHODS. The authors conducted a retrospective study of 4144 HIV-infected individuals who had 26,916 person-years of follow-up and who had open access to medical care at 1 of the United States military HIV clinics during the years 1988-2003. Cancer incidence rates were race specific and were adjusted for age; these were compared with national rates using logistic regression to assess predictors of NADC development. RESULTS. One hundred thirty-three NADCs were diagnosed with a rate of 980 diagnoses per 100,000 person-years. The most frequent NADCs were skin carcinomas (basal cell and squamous cell), Hodgkin disease, and anal carcinoma. The results showed that there were higher rates of melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease among the HIV-infected cohort compared with age-adjusted rates for the general United States population. Predictors of NADCs included age older than 40 years (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; P < 0.001), Caucasian/non-Hispanic race (OR, 2.1; P < 0.001), longer duration of HIV infection (OR, 1.2; P < 0.001), and a history of opportunistic infection (OR, 2.5; P < 0.001). The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was associated with lower rates of NADCs (OR, 0.21; P < 0.001). A low CD4 nadir or CD4 count at diagnosis (< 200 cells/mL) was not predictive of NADCs. CONCLUSIONS. The most frequent NADCs were primary skin malignancies. Melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease occurred at higher rates among HIV-infected individuals. The implementation of screening programs for these malignancies should be considered. Most risk factors for the development of NADCs are nonmodifiable; however, the use of HAART appeared to be beneficial in protecting against the development of malignant disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1505-1511
Number of pages7
JournalCancer
Volume104
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Malignancies
  • Military
  • Risk factors

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