Background:The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of and risk factors for thromboembolic events-including assessment of the intraoperative use of tranexamic acid and postoperative use of chemical thromboprophylaxis-in patients undergoing operative treatment of primary bone or soft-Tissue sarcoma or oligometastatic bone disease.Methods:This study was performed as a secondary analysis of prospective data collected from the Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery (PARITY) randomized controlled trial, which included 604 patients ≥12 years old who underwent surgical resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction for either primary bone or soft-Tissue sarcoma or oligometastatic disease of the femur or tibia. We determined the incidence of thromboembolic events in these patients and evaluated potential risk factors, including patient age, sex, antibiotic treatment group, type of tumor (i.e., primary bone or soft-Tissue sarcoma or metastatic bone disease), intraoperative tranexamic acid, tourniquet use, operative time, pathologic characteristics (i.e., American Joint Committee on Cancer grade, vascular invasion, and percent necrosis), postoperative chemical thromboprophylaxis regimen, and surgical site infection. Continuous variables were assessed with use of the Student t test. Categorical variables were assessed with use of the Pearson chi-square test, except when the expected cell counts were <5, in which case the Fisher exact test was utilized. Significance was set at 0.05.Results:Postoperative thromboembolic events occurred in 11 (1.8%) of 604 patients. Patients who experienced a thromboembolic event had a significantly higher mean (± standard deviation) age (59.6 ± 17.5 years) than those who did not experience a thromboembolic event (40.9 ± 21.8; p = 0.002). Patients randomized to the long-Term antibiotic group had a significantly higher incidence of thromboembolic events (9 of 293; 3.1%) than those randomized to the short-Term antibiotic group (2 of 311; 0.64%; p = 0.03). Neither intraoperative tranexamic acid nor postoperative chemical thromboprophylaxis were significantly associated with the occurrence of a thromboembolic event.Conclusions:Although relatively rare in the PARITY cohort, thromboembolic events were more likely to occur in older patients and those receiving long-Term prophylactic antibiotics. Intraoperative tranexamic acid and postoperative chemical thromboprophylaxis were not associated with a greater incidence of thromboembolic events.Level of Evidence:Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.