The tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a complex ecosystem comprised of dozens of distinct cell types, including tumor, stroma, and immune cell populations. To characterize proteome-level variation and tumor heterogeneity at scale, high-throughput methods are needed to selectively isolate discrete cellular populations in solid tumor malignancies. This protocol describes a high-throughput workflow, enabled by artificial intelligence (AI), that segments images of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained, thin tissue sections into pathology-confirmed regions of interest for selective harvest of histology-resolved cell populations using laser microdissection (LMD). This strategy includes a novel algorithm enabling the transfer of regions denoting cell populations of interest, annotated using digital image software, directly to laser microscopes, thus enabling more facile collections. Successful implementation of this workflow was performed, demonstrating the utility of this harmonized method to selectively harvest tumor cell populations from the TME for quantitative, multiplexed proteomic analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry. This strategy fully integrates with routine histopathology review, leveraging digital image analysis to support enrichment of cellular populations of interest and is fully generalizable, enabling harmonized harvests of cell populations from the TME for multiomic analyses.