Influenza Vaccine Uptake, Hand Hygiene Practices, and Perceived Barriers in Decision Making

Maggie Stedman-Smith*, Diana M. Kingsbury, Cathy L.Z. DuBois, Scott F. Grey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The annual costs of influenza are in the billions of dollars, with employers bearing substantial burdens. Yet, influenza vaccine uptake is sub-optimal. A random survey was administered to employees at a Midwestern public university using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the rate, characteristics, and barriers of self-reported flu vaccine uptake during March-April of 2012. The lowest uptake was among adults, ages 18 to 49 (29.8%), even though they are included in universal recommendations. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for demographic confounders showed an increase in self-identified protective hand hygiene behavior among those who reported influenza vaccine uptake compared with those who did not. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed contextual accounts of why vaccine uptake was declined including structural, perceptual, and knowledge barriers. Implementation and evaluation of novel multicomponent worksite vaccine interventions tailored to reach young and middle-aged employees including utilization of risk communication is needed to facilitate increased uptake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-32
Number of pages12
JournalWorkplace Health and Safety
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • employees
  • hand hygiene
  • influenza vaccine
  • risk communication
  • workplace


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