Intensive Care Unit-Like Care of Nonhuman Primates with Ebola Virus Disease

Paul W. Blair, Mark G. Kortepeter, Lydia G. Downey, Cristian S. Madar, Isaac L. Downs, Karen A. Martins, Franco Rossi, Janice A. Williams, Annie Madar, Christopher W. Schellhase, Jeremy J. Bearss, Xiankun Zeng, Sina Bavari, Veronica Soloveva, Jay B. Wells, Kelly S. Stuthman, Nicole L. Garza, Sean A. Vantongeren, Ginger C. Donnelly, Jesse SteffensJennifer Kalapaca, Perry Wiseman, Joseph Henry, Shannon Marko, Mark Chappell, Luis Lugo-Roman, Elliot Ramos-Rivera, Christian Hofer, Eugene Blue, Joshua Moore, Jimmy Fiallos, Darrel Wetzel, William D. Pratt, Tami Unangst, Adele Miller, James J. Sola, Ronald B. Reisler, Anthony P. Cardile*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) supportive care strategies are largely guided by retrospective observational research. This study investigated the effect of EVD supportive care algorithms on duration of survival in a controlled nonhuman primate (NHP) model. Methods: Fourteen rhesus macaques were challenged intramuscularly with a target dose of Ebola virus (1000 plaque-forming units; Kikwit). NHPs were allocated to intensive care unit (ICU)-like algorithms (n = 7), intravenous fluids plus levofloxacin (n = 2), or a control group (n = 5). The primary outcome measure was duration of survival, and secondary outcomes included changes in clinical laboratory values. Results: Duration of survival was not significantly different between the pooled ICU-like algorithm and control groups (8.2 vs 6.9 days of survival; hazard ratio; 0.50; P = .25). Norepinephrine was effective in transiently maintaining baseline blood pressure. NHPs treated with ICU-like algorithms had delayed onset of liver and kidney injury. Conclusions: While an obvious survival difference was not observed with ICU-like care, clinical observations from this model may aid in EVD supportive care NHP model refinement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)632-642
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - 15 Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Ebola virus disease
  • Filoviridae
  • Mononegavirales
  • animal
  • hemorrhagic fevers
  • intensive care
  • models
  • viral


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