Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) initiate inflammatory pathways that are common to both sterile and infectious processes. The DAMP, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and the transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), have been independently associated as key players in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our study demonstrates that IRF-1 contributes to hepatocellular release of HMGB1 and further that IRF-1 is a necessary component of HMGB1 release in response to hypoxia or after liver I/R. We also link the nuclear upregulation of IRF-1 to the presence of functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pattern recognition receptor also important in sterile and infectious processes. Using IRF-1 chimeric mice, we show that IRF-1 upregulation in hepatic parenchymal cells, and not in the bone marrow-derived immune cells, is responsible for HMGB1 release during ischemic liver injury. Finally, our study also demonstrates a role for IRF-1 in modulating the acetylation status and subsequent release of HMGB1 through histone acetyltransferases. We found that serum HMGB1 is acetylated after liver I/R and that this process was dependent on IRF-1. Additionally, liver I/R induced a direct association of IRF-1 and the nuclear histone acetyltransferase enzyme p300. Together, these findings suggest that I/R-induced release of acetylated HMGB1 is a process that is dependent on TLR4-mediated upregulation of IRF-1.
- ischemia/reperfusion injury
- sterile inflammation