We present a case series of 3 surgical procedures (2 patients) in which intraoperative duplex ultrasound (IDUS) was used to determine whether the chronic compression of the popliteal artery caused by popliteal artery entrapment syndrome had injured the artery to such a degree that interposition bypass was required. Patients initially underwent standard clinical evaluation including history and physical examination and noninvasive diagnostic testing including postexercise ankle-brachial indexes and angiography with evocative maneuvers before surgery. IDUS was performed. Doppler was used to calculate peak systolic velocities (PSVs) and velocity ratios (VRs) across areas of suspected injury. B-mode was used to assess arterial wall thickness (AWT) and sclerotic changes. Patients were followed in the postoperative period with surveillance duplex ultrasound (US). Three limbs (2 patients) underwent IDUS evaluation after popliteal decompression. Limb 1 demonstrated an elevated intraoperative PSV of 295 cm/sec with an elevated VR of 2.52 (295/117 cm/sec) and AWT of 1.1 mm. Interposition bypass was performed after popliteal decompression. Postoperative surveillance duplex US revealed a reduction of the PSV to 90 cm/sec. Limb 2 showed a mildly elevated intraoperative PSV of 211.5 cm/sec with a VR of 1.86 (211.5/114 cm/sec) and AWT of 0.8 mm. An interposition bypass was not performed. Limb 3 demonstrated an elevated intraoperative PSV of 300 cm/sec with an elevated VR of 2.51 (300/119.5 cm/sec) and AWT of 1.0. Interposition bypass was performed. Postoperative surveillance duplex US revealed a reduction of the PSV to 115 cm/sec. IDUS was very helpful in the operative management and intraoperative decision making process for popliteal artery entrapment. An elevated PSV of 250e275 cm/sec or greater on IDUS and a VR of 2.0 or greater, in conjunction with B-mode demonstration of arterial wall injury, was useful in identifying severely injured popliteal arterial segments. Additional prospective studies are warranted to further investigate objective criteria that indicate the need for bypass.