Introduction, evolution, and dissemination of influenza A viruses in exhibition swine in the United States during 2009 to 2013

Martha I. Nelson, Karla M. Stucker, Seth A. Schobel, Nídia S. Trovão, Suman R. Das, Vivien G. Dugan, Sarah W. Nelson, Srinand Sreevatsan, Mary L. Killian, Jacqueline M. Nolting, David E. Wentworth, Andrew S. Bowman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The swine-human interface created at agricultural fairs, along with the generation of and maintenance of influenza A virus diversity in exhibition swine, presents an ongoing threat to public health. Nucleotide sequences of influenza A virus isolates collected from exhibition swine in Ohio (n=262) and Indiana (n=103) during 2009 to 2013 were used to investigate viral evolution and movement within this niche sector of the swine industry. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were employed to identify introductions of influenza A virus to exhibition swine and study viral population dynamics. In 2013 alone, we identified 10 independent introductions of influenza A virus into Ohio and/or Indiana exhibition swine. Frequently, viruses from the same introduction were identified at multiple fairs within the region, providing evidence of rapid and widespread viral movement within the exhibition swine populations of the two states. While pigs moving from fair to fair to fair is possible in some locations, the concurrent detection of nearly identical strains at several fairs indicates that a common viral source was more likely. Importantly, we detected an association between the high number of human variant H3N2 (H3N2v) virus infections in 2012 and the widespread circulation of influenza A viruses of the same genotype in exhibition swine in Ohio fairs sampled that year. The extent of viral diversity observed in exhibition swine and the rapidity with which it disseminated across long distances indicate that novel strains of influenza A virus will continue to emerge and spread within exhibition swine populations, presenting an ongoing threat to humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10963-10971
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number23
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


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