Issues in women's participation in a phase III community HIV vaccine trial in Thailand

Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Punnee Pitisuttithum*, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Chirasak Khamboonruang, Prayura Kunasol, Pravan Suntharasamai, Swangjai Pungpak, Sirivan Vanijanonta, Valai Bussaratid, Wirach Maek-A-Nantawat, Jittima Dhitavat, Prasert Thongcharoen, Rungrawee Pawarana, Yupa Sabmee, Mike W. Benenson, Patricia Morgan, Robert J. O'Connell, Jerome Kim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


To assess qualities and outcomes of women participating in a large, community-based HIV vaccine trial, the present study was conducted among female participants of the RV 144 prime-boost trial in Thailand from 2003 to 2009. Qualities of participation refer to complete vaccination, retention, and status change. Outcomes of participation refer to incident rate, adverse event, and participation impact event. A total of 6,334 (38.6%) women participated in the trial, of whom about 50% were classified as low risk and 11% as high risk. About 85% of participants completed four vaccinations and 76% were included in the per-protocol analysis of the on-time vaccination schedule. More women (88%) completed 42 months follow-up compared with men (85%). Women aged 21 and above had more adverse events compared to younger age groups. More women (5%) compared with men (3%) reported participation impact events (PIEs). High-risk women had more PIEs and a higher infection rate compared to the low-risk group. Complete vaccination and retention on last follow-up were more common in married women aged above 21, and being a housewife. Female volunteers showed the same qualities and outcomes of participation as males in the HIV vaccine trial. There was no statistically significant difference in vaccine efficacy between men and women, especially among the high-risk and married women. The study highlighted the important behavioral, social, and cultural issues that could be considered for future HIV vaccine trial designs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1524-1534
Number of pages11
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


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