Latent Factor Analysis of the PROMIS and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Surgery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are reporting tools that quantify patients' perceptions of their mental and physical health. Many PROs may inadvertently measure the same or overlapping theoretical constructs (e.g., pain, function, depression, etc.), which is both inefficient and a patient burden. The purpose of this study was to examine the functional relationship of the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score and general constructs measured with the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in young patients undergoing shoulder surgery. Material and Methods: This study was an institutional review board approved retrospective case control of the Military Orthopaedics Tracking Injuries and Outcomes Network using 805 patients and 1,373 observations. All patients underwent shoulder surgery and had multiple observations ranging from 28 days pre-surgery to 428 days post-surgery. Correlation matrices and exploratory factor analysis were used to examine how each of the measured variables (PROMIS physical function, PROMIS pain interference, PROMIS sleep disturbance, PROMIS anxiety, PROMIS depression, and SANE surveys) contribute or "weigh"on latent factors, which are then mapped to a theoretical construct. This statistical method helps uncover structural relationships between measured variables. Results: The PROMIS and SANE surveys collectively weigh on two latent factors: psychological health (measured variables: PROMIS anxiety [0.95] and PROMIS depression [0.86]) and physical capabilities (measured variables: PROMIS physical function [0.81], PROMIS pain interference [-0.82], PROMIS sleep disturbance [-0.51], and SANE [0.68]). Although the physical capability construct is functionally related to psychological health (-0.45), there is no direct relation between SANE and measures of depression or anxiety. Conclusions: This study supports the use of the SANE as a valid single question to assess physical function providing similar information to the PROMIS in regard to measuring physical capabilities. Its simplicity makes it easy to use and implement with minimal uplift or change in workflow.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E882-E888
JournalMilitary Medicine
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes


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