Learning in One-to-One Laptop Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Research Synthesis

Binbin Zheng, Mark Warschauer, Chin Hsi Lin, Chi Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

174 Scopus citations


Over the past decade, the number of one-to-one laptop programs in schools has steadily increased. Despite the growth of such programs, there is little consensus about whether they contribute to improved educational outcomes. This article reviews 65 journal articles and 31 doctoral dissertations published from January 2001 to May 2015 to examine the effect of one-to-one laptop programs on teaching and learning in K–12 schools. A meta-analysis of 10 studies examines the impact of laptop programs on students’ academic achievement, finding significantly positive average effect sizes in English, writing, mathematics, and science. In addition, the article summarizes the impact of laptop programs on more general teaching and learning processes and perceptions as reported in these studies, again noting generally positive findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1052-1084
Number of pages33
JournalReview of Educational Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • 21st century skills
  • academic achievement
  • meta-analysis
  • one-to-one laptop program
  • processes and perceptions


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