Leishmaniasis is a recurrent health problem for the U.S. and other militaries. Health care workers may be unfamiliar with the risk factors, transmission, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. A team of highly trained specialists is required to properly manage service members with leishmaniasis. Such care is available only in a few medical centers. Although there are no prophylactic drugs to prevent this disease, control of insect populations and use of personal protection measures can minimize arthropod-related casualties. The impact of leishmaniasis on military operations and research initiatives to better prevent, diagnose, and treat infection are discussed.