Despite encouraging results using lymphocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) blockade to inhibit BM and solid organ transplantation rejection in nonhuman primates and humans, the precise mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential are still poorly understood. Using a fully allogeneic murine transplantation model, we assessed the relative distribution of total lymphocyte subsets in untreated versus anti-LFA-1-treated animals. Our results demonstrated a striking loss of naive T cells from peripheral lymph nodes, a concomitant gain in blood after LFA-1 blockade, and a shift in phenotype of the cells remaining in the node to a CD62LloCD44hi profile.We determined that this change was due to a specific enrichment of activated, graft-specific effectors in the peripheral lymph nodes of anti-LFA-1-treated mice compared with untreated controls, and not to a direct effect of anti-LFA-1 on CD62L expression. LFA-1 blockade also resulted in a dramatic increase in the frequency of CD4+ FoxP3+regulatory T cells in graft-draining nodes. Our results suggest that the differential impact of LFA-1 blockade on the distribution of naive versus effector and regulatory T cells may underlie its ability to inhibit alloreactive T-cell responses after transplantation.