Background Although clinical data is limited, guidelines recommend avoiding live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine (LAIV) in HIV-infected persons. Objectives To evaluate non-guideline LAIV use and resulting adverse effects in an HIV-infected population. Study design A retrospective analysis of influenza vaccination in US Air Force (USAF) members with HIV infection immunized between 2005 and 2015 was performed. Influenza vaccination history after HIV diagnosis was evaluated, including receipt of LAIV or inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). The proportion with influenza-like illness (ILI) diagnoses within 30 days after vaccination with IIV or LAIV was assessed by ICD-9 codes. Results 437 patients met inclusion criteria, with 121 (27.7%) receiving at least one dose of LAIV and 316 (72.3%) receiving only IIV during follow-up. The mean number of LAIV doses received was 1.5 ± 0.89 (range, 1–4) and the majority (n = 50, 82%) received their first LAIV vaccination within the first year after HIV diagnosis. Patients were predominantly males and the LAIV group had a lower mean age at HIV diagnosis (27.5 ± 6.6) compared to the IIV group (30 ± 7.8; p < 0.001). Overall, IIV was associated with ILI diagnosis within 30 days of vaccination (X2 4.58; p = 0.032), with 16 cases (94.1%) occurring in those who received IIV compared to 1 case (5.9%) in those who received LAIV. Conclusion Although over a quarter of USAF members received LAIV after HIV diagnosis, LAIV administration did not show an increased frequency of post-vaccine ILI diagnoses. Further education is needed to ensure that USAF members with HIV infection are vaccinated according to guideline recommendations, particularly newly diagnosed patients.
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