Longitudinal analysis reveals high prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus associated with multiple sclerosis

Kjetil Bjornevik, Marianna Cortese, Brian C. Healy, Jens Kuhle, Michael J. Mina, Yumei Leng, Stephen J. Elledge, David W. Niebuhr, Ann I. Scher, Kassandra L. Munger, Alberto Ascherio*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

899 Scopus citations

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of unknown etiology. We tested the hypothesis that MS is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a cohort comprising more than 10 million young adults on active duty in the US military, 955 of whom were diagnosed with MS during their period of service. Risk of MS increased 32-fold after infection with EBV but was not increased after infection with other viruses, including the similarly transmitted cytomegalovirus. Serum levels of neurofilament light chain, a biomarker of neuroaxonal degeneration, increased only after EBV seroconversion. These findings cannot be explained by any known risk factor for MS and suggest EBV as the leading cause of MS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)296-301
Number of pages6
JournalScience
Volume375
Issue number6578
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes

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