Machine learning algorithms to estimate 10-Year survival in patients with bone metastases due to prostate cancer: toward a disease-specific survival estimation tool

Ashley B. Anderson, Clare Grazal, Rikard Wedin, Claire Kuo, Yongmei Chen, Bryce R. Christensen, Jennifer Cullen, Jonathan A. Forsberg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Prognostic indicators, treatments, and survival estimates vary by cancer type. Therefore, disease-specific models are needed to estimate patient survival. Our primary aim was to develop models to estimate survival duration after treatment for skeletal-related events (SREs) (symptomatic bone metastasis, including impending or actual pathologic fractures) in men with metastatic bone disease due to prostate cancer. Such disease-specific models could be added to the PATHFx clinical-decision support tool, which is available worldwide, free of charge. Our secondary aim was to determine disease-specific factors that should be included in an international cancer registry. Methods: We analyzed records of 438 men with metastatic prostate cancer who sustained SREs that required treatment with radiotherapy or surgery from 1989–2017. We developed and validated 6 models for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 10-year survival after treatment. Model performance was evaluated using calibration analysis, Brier scores, area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC), and decision curve analysis to determine the models’ clinical utility. We characterized the magnitude and direction of model features. Results: The models exhibited acceptable calibration, accuracy (Brier scores < 0.20), and classification ability (AUCs > 0.73). Decision curve analysis determined that all 6 models were suitable for clinical use. The order of feature importance was distinct for each model. In all models, 3 factors were positively associated with survival duration: younger age at metastasis diagnosis, proximal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 10 ng/mL, and slow-rising alkaline phosphatase velocity (APV). Conclusions: We developed models that estimate survival duration in patients with metastatic bone disease due to prostate cancer. These models require external validation but should meanwhile be included in the PATHFx tool. PSA and APV data should be recorded in an international cancer registry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number476
JournalBMC Cancer
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bone metastasis
  • Machine learning
  • Oncology
  • PATHFx
  • Prostate cancer
  • Skeletal-related event
  • Survival estimates

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