Major Hepatic Trauma: Warm Ischemic Tolerance of the Liver After Hemorrhagic Shock

George A. Perdrizet*, David L. Giles, Robert Dring, Suresh K. Agarwal, Khalid Khwaja, Yuan Z. Gao, Michael Geary, Vernon L. Cowell, Martin Berman, Robert Brautigam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: The management of severe hepatic trauma frequently involves exposing the liver to varying periods of warm ischemia. The ischemic tolerance of the liver, in the setting of hemorrhagic shock (HS) and trauma, is presently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that warm ischemic tolerance of the porcine liver will be decreased following resuscitation from HS. Materials and methods: Twenty-three Yorkshire pigs were divided into three groups: 1) hepatic ischemia alone (HI, n = 9); 2) hemorrhagic shock alone (HS, n = 3); and 3) hemorrhagic shock plus hepatic ischemia combined (HSHI, n = 11). Following reperfusion, a liver biopsy was obtained and serial blood chemistries were sampled. Results: Post-operative day 7 mortality was increased in the HSHI group (7/11) compared to the HI (0/9) group, P = 0.038. Notably, deaths did not result from acute liver failure, but rather from intra-operative hemodynamic collapse shortly following hepatic reperfusion. In addition, the HSHI group experienced significantly elevated lactic acid, serum creatinine and liver enzyme levels. Analysis of the liver biopsy samples is consistent with a more severe liver injury in the HSHI group. Conclusions: The warm ischemic tolerance of the liver following resuscitation from HS is significantly decreased in this porcine model compared to HS or HI alone. Mortality was associated with acute intra-operative hemodynamic collapse occurring shortly after hepatic reperfusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-77
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • hemorrhagic shock
  • ischemia-reperfusion
  • liver injury
  • lung injury
  • organ failure
  • second hit hypothesis
  • venovenous bypass


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