Malaria, bilharzia and geo-helminth transmission in Kenya: Environmental determinants

B. A. Okech, C. S. Mwandawiro

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Environmental factors are key drivers of disease transmission. Diseases such as malaria and bilharzia require intermediate hosts that propagate in aquatic environments, like rice paddies, and often the interaction of the intermediate hosts with the environment influences the transmission of the pathogens. Irrigation is needed for the farming of rice and other crops but also creates suitable conditions for mosquito and snail breeding and is a risk factor for malaria and schistosomiasis transmission. Rural communities in developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa that work in rice irrigation systems are faced with the risks of infection from malaria and bilharzia owing to poor environmental sanitation. The lack of safe drinking water and the nonmechanized nature of rice farming promote schistosomiasis and geohelminth infection. In addition to many of these sub-Saharan countries, the lack of adequate facilities and medicines for treatment increases the risk of infection with these pathogens. Although control measures are available to prevent transmission, they are not used effectively due to a variety of reasons, including the lack of proper public health and medical infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Environmental Health
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780444639523
ISBN (Print)9780444639516
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis
  • Deforestation
  • Diseases
  • Geohelminths
  • Integrated vector management (IVM)
  • Irrigation
  • Larviciding
  • Malaria
  • Mosquito
  • Sanitation
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Snail
  • Water
  • sub-Saharan Africa


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